Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A.

Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below eachtext by choosing A,B,C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.(40points)

Text 1

Rats and other animals need to be highly at tuned to social signals fromothers so that can identify friends to cooperate with and enemies to avoid. Tofind out if this extends to non-living beings, Loleh Quinn at the University ofCalifornia, San Diego, and her colleagues tested whether rats can detect socialsignals from robotic rats.

They housed eight adult rats with two types of robotic rat-one social and oneasocial -for 5 our days.

The robots rats were quite minimalist, resembling a chunkier version of acomputer mouse with wheels-to move around and colorful markings.

During the experiment, the social robot rat followed the living rats around,played with the same toys, and opened caged doors to let trapped rats escape.Meanwhile, the asocial robot simply moved forwards and backwards and side toside.

Next, the researchers trapped the robots in cages and gave the rats theopportunity to release them by pressing a lever.

Across 18 trials each, the living rats were 52 percent more likely on averageto set the social robot free than the asocial one. This suggests that the ratsperceived the social robot as a genuine social being. They may have bonded morewith the social robot because it displayed behaviors like communal exploring andplaying. This could lead to the rats better remembering having freed it earlier,and wanting the robot to return the favour when they get trapped, saysQuinn.

The readiness of the rats to befriend the social robot was surprising givenits minimal design. The robot was the same size as a regular rat but resembled asimple plastic box on wheels. "We'd assumed we'd have to give its moving headand tail, facial features, and put a scene on it to make it smell like a realrat, but that wasn't necessary," says Janet Wiles at the University ofQueensland in Australia, who helped with the research.

The finding shows how sensitive rats arc to social cues, even when they comefrom basic robots. Similarly, children tend to treat robots as if they arefellow beings, even when they display only simple social signals. "We humansseem to be fascinated by robots, and it turns out other animals are too," saysWiles.

21.Quinn and her colleagues conducted a test to see if rats can .

[A] pickup social signals from non-living rats

[B] distinguish a friendly rat from a hostile one

[C] attain sociable traits through special training

[D] send out warning messages to their fellow

22.What did the social robot do during the experiment?

[A] It followed the social robot.

[B] It played with some toys.

[C] It set the trapped rats free.

[D] It moved around alone.

23.According to Quinn, the rats released the social robot because they

[A] tried to practice a means of escape

[B] expected it to do the same in return

[C] wanted to display their intelligence

[D] considered that an interesting game

24.James Wiles notes that rats .

[A] can remember other rat's facial features

[B] differentiate smells better than sizes

[C] respond more to cations than to looks

[D] can be scared by a plastic box on wheels

25.It can be learned from the text that rats .

[A] appear to be adaptable to new surroundings

[B] arc more socially active than other animals

[C] behave differently from children in socializing

[D] are more sensitive to social cues than expected

【Text 1 答案解析】

21. 【答案】A pick up social signals from non-living rats

解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词Quinn and her colleagues和a test定位到第一段第二句。To find outif this extends to non-living beings, Loleh Quinn at the University ofCalifornia, San Diego, and her colleagues tested whether rats can detect socialsignals from robotic rats.为了查明这是否延伸到了非生物,Quinn和她的同事测试了老鼠能否从机器老鼠身上探测到社会信号。正确答案A是原文的同义替换。选项B的distinguish afriendly rat from a hostile one区分友好的老鼠和敌对的老鼠,并未提及,是常识性干扰。选项C的attain sociabletraits through special training通过特殊训练获得社交品质,原文并未提及,属于无中生有。选项D的send out warningmessages to their fellow向它们的同伴发出警告信息,原文并未提及,属于无中生有。

22.【答案】D It moved around alone.

解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词the asocial robot和experiment定位到第三段最后一句Meanwhile, theasocial robot simply moved forwards and backwards and side toside.同时,不具有社交能力的机器人只能进行简单的前后左右移动。正确答案D It moved around alone.是原文的同义替换。选项A的Itfollowed the social robot.它跟随具备社交能力的老鼠,与原文the social robot rat followed theliving rats around不符,原文说的是具备社交能力的老鼠跟随真老鼠,属于张冠李戴。选项B的It played with sometoys.它玩一些玩具,与原文不符,原文中说的是具备社交能力的老鼠玩同样的玩具,属于张冠李戴。选项C的It set the trapped ratsfree.它释放了被困的老鼠也与原文内容不符,原文说的同样是具备社交能力的老鼠,而题干问的是不具备社交能力的老鼠在实验中做了什么,属于张冠李戴。

23.【答案】B expected it to do the same in return

解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词Quinn和the rats released the socialrobots往下定位到第四五段,第五段最后一句This could lead to the rats better remembering havingfreed it earlier, and wanting the robot to return the favour when they gettrapped, says Quinn. Quinn说:这可能会让老鼠更好地记住早些时候已经释放了机器人,并希望机器人在它们被困住时能回报它们的恩惠。正确答案Bexpected it to do the same in return是原文的同义替换。干扰项A的 tried to practice a means ofescape试图尝试一种逃跑的方法,原文并未提及,属于无中生有。选项C的 wanted to display theirintelligence想要展示它们的智慧,文中并未提到,属于无中生有。选项D的considered that an interestinggame觉得是个有趣的游戏在原文当中也没有体现,属于无中生有。

24.【答案】C respond more to actions than to looks

解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词James Wiles定位到第六七段,尾段尾句We humans seem to befascinated by robots, and it turns out other animals are too, says Wiles.Wiles说:“我们人类似乎对机器人很着迷,事实证明其他动物也很着迷。”再结合尾段前面部分的阐述,会发现正确答案C respond more toactions than to looks对行动的反应多于对外表的反应,是原文的类似表达。干扰项A的can remember other rat'sfacialfeatures能够记住其他老鼠的面部特征,与原文内容不符,原文第六段说的是假设赋予机器老鼠面部特征,那都不重要,属于偷换概念。选项B的differentiatesmells better thansizes与体型大小相比,能够更好地区分气味,原文中只提到赋予机器老鼠真老鼠的气味,与原文不符,属于偷换概念。选项D的can be scared by aplastic box on wheels会被装有轮子的塑料盒子吓坏,文中机器老鼠只是装有轮子的塑料盒子,还是属于偷换概念。

25.【答案】D are more sensitive to social cues than expected

Text 2

It is true that CEO pay has gone up-top ones may make 300 times the pay oftypical workers on average, and since the mid-1970s CEO pay for large publiclytraded American corporations has, by varying estimates, gone up by about 500%.The typical CEO of a top American corporation now makes about S18.9 million ayear.

The best model for understanding the growth of CEO pay is that of limited CEOtalent in a world where business opportunities for the top firms are growingrapidly. The efforts of America's highest-earning 1% have been one of the moredynamic elements of the global economy. It’s not popular to say, but one reasontheir pay has gone up so much is that CEOs really have upped their game relativeto many other workers in the U.S. economy.

Today’s CEO, at least for major American firms, must have many mere skillsthan simply being able to "run the company”, CEOs must have a good sense offinancial markets and maybe even how the company should trade in them. They alsoneed better public relations skills than their predecessors, as the costs ofeven a minor slip up can be significant. Then there's the fact that largeAmerican companies are much more globalized than ever before, with supply chainsspread across a larger number of countries. To lead in that system requiresknowledge that is fairly mind-boggling plus, virtually all major Americancompanies are beyond this major CEOs still have to do all the day-to-day workthey have always done.

The common idea that high CEO pay is mainly about ripping people off doesn'texplain history very well. By most measures, corporate governance has become alot tighter and more rigorous since the 1970s. Yet it is principally during thisperiod of stronger governance that CEO pay has been high and rising. Thatsuggests it is in the broader corporate interest to recruit top candidates forincreasingly tough jobs.

Furthermore, the highest CEO salaries are paid to outside candidates, not tothe cozy insider picks, another sign that high CEO pay is not some kind ofdepredation at the expense of the rest of the company. And the stock marketreacts positively when companies tic CEO pay to, say, stock prices, a sign thatthose practices build up corporate value not just for the CEO.

26. Which of the following has contributed to CEO pay rise?

[A] The growth in the number of corporations

[B] The general pay rise with a better economy

[C] Increased business opportunities for top firms

[D] Close cooperation among leading economies

27.Compared with their predecessors, today’s CEOs are required to .

[A] foster a stronger sense of teamwork

[B] finance more research and development

[C] establish closer ties with tech companies

[D] operate more globalized companies

28.CEO pay has been rising since the 1970s despite .

[A] continual internal opposition

[B] strict corporate governance

[C] conservative business strategies

[D] Repeated government warnings

29.High CEO pay can be justified by the fact that it helps

[A] confirm the status of CEOs

[B] motivate inside candidates

[C] boost the efficiency of CEOs

[D] increase corporate value

30.The most suitable title for this text would be .

[A] CEOs Are Not Overpaid

[B] CEO Pay: Past and Present

[C] CEOs' challenges of Today

[D] CEO Traits: Not Easy to Define

【Text 2 答案解析】

26.【答案】C Increased business opportunities for top firms

解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词CEO pay rise及题干中对CEO薪酬增加原因的提问,定位到第二段首句The best modelfor understanding the growth of CEO pay is that of limited CEO talent in a worldwhere business opportunities for the top firms are growingrapidly.了解CEO薪酬增长的最佳模式是,CEO人才在一个顶级公司的商业机会迅速增长的世界里是有限的。正确答案C Increased businessopportunities for top firms增加顶级公司商业机会的增加。干扰项A的The growth in the number ofcorporations公司数量的增长,文中并不是说公司数量而是商业机会,属于偷换概念。选项B的The general pay rise with abetter economy好转的经济带来的普遍加薪,文中并未提到better economy,属于无中生有。选项D的Close cooperationamong leading economies 主要经济体之间的密切合作,文中也并未提到经济体之间的何做,属于无中生有。

27.【答案】D operate more globalized companies

解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词predecessors及today's CEOs定位到第三段第二句They also needbetter public relations skills than their predecessors, as the costs of even aminor slipup can be significant.他们还需要比他们的前任更好的公关技巧,因为即使是一个小失误的成本也可能是巨大的。选项中并未提到,继续往后看Then there's the fact thatlarge American companies are much more globalized than ever before, with supplychains spread across a larger number of countries.还有一个事实是,美国的大公司比以往任何时候都更加全球化,供应链遍布更多的。正确答案D operate more globalizedcompanies经营更全球化的公司是该句内容的同义替换。干扰项A的foster a stronger sense ofteamwork培养更强的团队合作意识,文中提到意识,只有对金融市场有很好的了解,甚至公司应该如何进行交易的意识,属于偷换概念。选项B的finance moreresearch and development资助更多的研发,定位段并没有提到,属于无中生有。选项D的establish closer ties withtech companies与科技公司建立更紧密的联系,定位段并未提到,属于无中生有。

28.【答案】B strict corporate governance

解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词the 1970s定位到第四段第三句Yet it is principally during thisperiod of stronger governance that CEO pay has been high and rising.然而,首席执行官的薪酬主要是在这一治理更加有力的时期一直居高不下。正确答案B strict corporategovernance严格的公司管理,属于原文内容的替换表达。干扰项A的continual internalopposition持续的内部对立在文中并未提到,属于无中生有。选项C的 conservative business strategies保守的商业策略,定位段并没有提到,属于无中生有。选项D的repeated government warnings政府的再三警告定位段并未提到,属于无中生有。

29.【答案】D increase corporate value

解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词High CEO pay及顺序出题规则,继续看尾段,定位句是And the stock marketreacts positively when companies tie CEO pay to, say, stock prices, a sign thatthose practices build up corporate value not just for theCEO.当公司把首席执行官的薪酬与股票价格挂钩时,股票市场的反应是积极的,这表明这些做法不仅为首席执行官带来机制,而且创造了公司价值。正确答案Dincrease corporate value增加公司价值,是原文内容的替换表达。干扰项A的confirm the status ofCEOs证实CEO的地位,定位段并未提到,属于无中生有。选项B的motivate insidecandidates激发内部候选人的积极性,文中尾段首句首席执行官的较高薪水是付给外部候选人的,而不是付给那些舒适的内部人选,属于偷换概念。选项C的boostthe efficiency of CEOs提高CEO的效率,定位段未提到,属于无中生有。

30. 【答案】A CEOs Are Not Overpaid

解析:本题目为主旨题,考察文章主旨。根据题干分析文章主题词为CEO的薪酬,所以排除C项、D项选项A的CEOs Are Not Overpaid首席执行官的薪水并不高。选项B的CEO Pay: Past and PresentCEO的薪酬:过去和现在,而CEO过去的薪酬并不是原文中心,属于偏离主题,因此正确选项为A。

Text 3

Madrid was hailed as a public health beacon last November when it rolled outambitious restrictions on the most polluting cars. Seven months and one electionday later, a new conservative city council suspended enforcement of the cleanair zone, a first step toward its possible demise.

Mayor Jose Luis Martinez-Almeida made opposition to the zone a centerpiece ofhis election campaign, despite its success in improving air quality. A judge hasnow overruled the city's decision to stop levying fines, ordering themreinstated. But with legal battles ahead, the zone's future looks uncertain atbest.

Among other weaknesses, the measures cities must employ when left to tackledirty air on their own are politically contentious, and therefore vulnerable.That's because they inevitably put the costs of cleaning the air on toindividual drivers-who must pay fees or buy better vehicles-rather- than on tothe car manufacturers whose cheating is the real cause of our toxicpollution.

It's not hard to imagine a similar reversal happening in London. The newultra-low emission zone (Ulez) is likely to be a big issue in next year'smayoral election. And if Sadiq Khan wins and extends it to the North and SouthCircular roads in 2021 as he intends, it is sure to spark intense oppositionfrom the far larger number of motorists who will then be affected.

It's not that measures such as London's Ulez are useless. Far from it Localofficials are using the levers that are available to them to safeguardresidents' health in the face of a serious threat. The zones do deliver someimprovements to air quality, and the science tells us that means real healthbenefits -fewer heart attacks, strokes and premature births, less cancer,dementia and asthma. Fewer untimely deaths.

But mayors and councilors can only do so much about a problem that is farbigger than any one city or town.

They are acting because national governments-Britain^ and others acrossEurope-have failed to do so.

Restrictions that keep highly polluting cars out of certain areas -citycentres,"school streets", even individual roads-are a response to the absence ofa larger effort to properly enforce existing regulations and require autocompanies to bring their vehicles into compliance. Wales has introduced speciallow speed limits to minimize pollution. We’re doing everything but insist thatmanufacturers clean up their cars.

31. Which of the following is true about Madrid’s clean air zone?

[A] Its effects are questionable

[B] It has been opposed by a judge

[C] It needs tougher enforcement

[D] Its fate is yet to be decided

32. Which is considered a weakness of the city-level measures to tackle dirtyair?

[A] They are biased against car manufacturers.

[B] They prove impractical for city councils.

[C] They are deemed too mild for politicians.

[D] They put too much burden on individual motorists.

33. The author believes that the extension of London's Ulez will___.

[A] arouse strong resistance.

[B] ensure Khan's electoral success.

[C] improve the city's traffic.

[D] discourage car manufacturing.

34. Who does the author think should have addressed the problem?

[A] Local residents

[B] Mayors.

[C] Councilors.

[D] National governments.

35. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that auto companies .

[A] [AJ will raise low-emission car production

[B] should be forced to follow regulations

[C] will upgrade the design of their vehicles

[D] should be put under public supervision

【Text 3 答案解析】

31.【答案】D Its fate is yet to be decided

解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词Madrid's clean air zone定位到前两段,首段说明背景Madrid's cleanairzone的执行暂停。继续找第二段,尽管能够提高空气质量,但是市长表示反对。一位法官现在否决了该市停止征收罚款的决定,下令恢复原状。但随着法律斗争的进行,Madrid'sclean air zone的未来看起来也不确定。正确答案D Its fate is yet to bedecided它的命运尚未决定,是原文内容的替换表达。选项A的 Its effects arequestionable.其效果值得怀疑。与原文内容相反,属于正反混淆。选项B的It has been opposed by ajudge.它遭到法官的反对。文中法官反对的并不是Madrid's clean air zone,而是停止征收罚款的决定。选项C的It needstougher enforcement.它需要更严格的执行。文中是执行已经停止,与原文内容不符,属于偷换概念。

32.【答案】D They put too much burden on individual motorists.

解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词a weakness of the city-level measures及tackle dirtyair定位到第三段第二句:That’s because they inevitably put the costs of cleaning the air onto individual drivers—who must pay fees or buy better vehicles—rather than on tothe car manufacturers whose heating is the real cause of our toxicpollution.这是因为他们不可避免地把清洁空气的费用转嫁给那些必须支付费用或购买更好车辆的司机,而不是汽车制造商,因为他们的供暖是造成我们有毒污染的真正原因。正确答案DThey put too much burden on individual motorists.他们给个人驾车者增加了太多负担与原文内容一致。选项A的They are biased again carmanufactures.他们对汽车制造商有偏见,文中提到汽车制造商,却并未提到对其有无偏见,属于偷换概念。选项B的They prove impracticalfor city councils.这些措施对市议会来说是不切实际的。选项C的They are deemed too mild forpoliticians.他们被认为对政治家来说太温和了。定位段并未提到,属于无中生有。

33.【答案】A arouse strong resistance

解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干关键词 extension和London’s Ulez定位到第四段:And if Sadiq Khanwins and extends it to the North and South Circular roads in 2021 as he intends,it is sure to spark intense opposition from the far larger number of motoristswho will then be affected.如果 SadiqKhan在2021年胜出,并按照他的意愿将其延伸至南北环路,肯定会引发更多驾车者的强烈反对,届时他们将受到影响。正确答案A arouse strongresistance引起强烈抵抗与原文内容一致。选项B的ensure Khans electoralsuccess确保Khans选举成功,文中提到的是如果这个人赢了,属于偷换概念。选项C的 improve the city'straffic改善城市交通,定位段并未提到,属于无中生有。选项D的discourage carmanufacturing抑制汽车制造业也并未在定位段提到,属于无中生有。

34.【答案】D National governments

解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。根据题干信息,问的是作者的具体观点。定位到第六段:But mayors and councillors canonly do so much about a problem that is far bigger than any one city or town.They are acting because national governments-Britain's and others across Europe-have failed to doso.但是市长和议员们只能对一个比任何一个城市或城镇都大得多的问题做这么多的工作。他们之所以采取行动,是因为英国和欧洲其他的政府未能做到这一点。正确答案DNational governments作者认为政府应该解决这个问题,与原文内容一致。选项A的 Localresidents当地居民,定位段并未提到,属于无中生有。选项B和C的mayors andcouncillors出现在定位句,但是与原文内容相反,属于正反混淆。

35. 【答案】B should be forced to follow regulations

解析:本题目为推断题,考察具体细节的推断。根据题干信息auto companies,定位到尾段首句:require auto companies tobring their vehicles into compliance要求汽车公司使其车辆符合要求。正确答案B should be forced tofollow regulations应该被迫遵守规定,与原文信息一致。选项A的 will raise low-emission carproduction将提高低排放汽车产量,定位段并未提到,属于无中生有。选项C和D的will upgrade the design of theirvehicles 和 should be put under publicsupervision将升级他们的车辆设计、应该接受公众监督在原文中没有相关信息。

Text 4

Now that members of Generation Z arc graduating college this spring-the mostcommonly-accepted definition says this generation was born after 1995, give ortake a year-the attention has been rising steadily in recent weeks. GenZs areabout to hit the streets looking for work in a labor market that's tighter thanit’s been in decades. And employers are planning on hiring about 17 percent morenew graduates for jobs in the U S. this year than last, according to a surveyconducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers. Everybody wantsto know how the people who will soon inhabit those empty office cubicles willdiffer from those who came before them.

If "entitled" is the most common adjective, fairly or not, applied tomillennials (those born between 1981 and 1995), the catchwords for Generation Zare practical and cautious. According to the career counselors and experts whostudy them, Generation Zs arc cl ear-eyed, economic pragmatists. Despitegraduating into the best economy in the past 50 years, Gen Zs know what aneconomic train wreck looks like. They were impressionable kids during the crashof 2008, when many of their parents lost their jobs or their life savings orboth. They aren't interested in taking any chances. The booming economy seems tohave done little to assuage this underlying generational sense of anxiousurgency, especially for those who have college debt. College loan balances inthe U.S. now stand at a record SI.5 trillion, according to the FederalReserve.

One survey from Accenture found that 88 percent of graduating seniors thisyear chose their major with a job in mind. In a 2019 survey of University ofGeorgia students, meanwhile, the career office found the most desirable trait ina future employer was the ability to offer secure employment (followed byprofessional development and training, and then inspiring purpose). Job securityor stability was the second most important career goal (work-life balance wasnumber one), followed by a sense of being dedicated to a cause or to feel goodabout serving the greater good.

36. Generation Zs graduating college this spring .

[A] are recognized for their abilities

[B] are in favor of job offers

[C] are optimistic about the labor market

[D] are drawing growing public attention

37. Generation Zs are keenly aware .

[A] [AJ what a tough economic situation is like

[B] what their parents expect of them

[C] how they differ from past generations

[D] how valuable a counselor's advice is

38. The word "assuage"(line 9, para 2) is closet in meaning to .

[A] define

[B] relieve

[C] maintain

[D] deepen

39. It can be learned from Paragraph 3 that Generation Zs .

[A] care little about their job performance

[B] give top priority to professional training

[C] think it hard to achieve work-Life balance

[D] have a clear idea about their future job.

40. Michelsen thinks that compared with millennials, Generation ZS are______.

[A] less realistic

[B] less adventurous

[C] more diligent

[D] more generous

【Text 4 答案解析】

36. 【C】are drawing growing publicattention细节题。根据题干直接定位到文章根据提干第一段第一句话。信息选项中的“drawing growing public attention”则对应到句中的“the attention has been rising steadily in recent weeks”(近几周的关注度在稳步提高)”,其中attention原词复现,rising和growing同义复现;而其他的选项则与最佳选项无缘,在定位区间中没有相应的对应信息。

37. 【B】what a tough economic situation is like;细节题。根据题干中询问GenerationZ的特点我们来到第二段。题干中的aware直接定位到第二段第四行”Gen Zs know what an economic train wreck lookslike(经济列车受到重创是什么样子的)”;信息选项中的“tough economic situation ”则对应到句中的“economic trainwreck ”;而其他的选项则与最佳选项无缘,在定位区间中没有相应的对应信息。

38. 【C】relieve;猜词题。根据题干,可以定位到第九段第二句话:“The booming economy seems to have donelittle to assuage this underlying generational sense of anxious urgency,especially for those who have college debt”,所以解题的关键是判断”The boomingeconomy(繁荣的经济)”和”generational sense of anxiousurgency(代际焦虑)”的关系;根据常识判断,繁荣的经济可以降低求职者的焦虑;再结合上一道题我们知道,Gen Zs是务实和谨慎(practical andcautious)的一代;由此可以得出繁荣的经济并未降低求职者的焦虑,原文已有并未(have donelittle),选项B中的relieve(减轻)与我们的判断一致,因此答案为C。而其它的选项A define(定义),Bmaintain(保持),deepen(加深)和我们的判断都不一致。

39. 【A】have a clear idea about their future jobs; 推断题。题目中明确出题段落(fromParagraph 3)。因此,第三段的第一句chose their major with a job in mind(按照自己的理想工作选择专业)和选项Dhave a clear idea about their futurejobs(对自己的未来工作有明确认识)相符合。根据原文中的第二句话(未来雇主最重要的特性是工作的稳定性,第二位是职业发展与培训,第三位是吸引人的目标)排除答案A和B;选项C并未体现。

40. 【B】less adventurous;细节题。题干中的compared with millennials定位到文章第二段:the catchwords for Gen Zs are practical and cautious(GenZs的口号是务实和谨慎);由此判断出选项B不爱冒险为正确答案。其余均与原文不不符。

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